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Operant Conditioning is applied to modify behavior, either to increase it or to decrease it, through reinforcement or punishment.
Positive Reinforcement means adding a a desired stimulus to increase a behavior.In the case of this kitten, I used food to increase the "coming close to me" behavior.
Negative Reinforcement is often confusing to people. It actually means to take something away, as oppose to mean something unpleasant. For example, putting on a seat belt takes away that annoying beeping sound, encouraging an increase in our seat belt putting on behavior.
Positive Punishment does not, in fact, mean something like making some each too uch ice cream. Rather, it means adding something undesirable, such as the proverbial, electric shock.
Negative Punishment means punishing by taking something away, such as your child's dessert, cell phone, or car privileges. Because maybe that'll teach 'im!
Other factors are involved, of course, such as the kitten's habituation (getting used) to my presence.
By pairing lip smacking/kissing sound (stimulus) with the food (positive reinforcement), and I can train this kitten to then come to me, in the absence of the reinforcement (food).